Rocks and Minerals
  • 1. Rocks and Minerals are natural solid substances that make up the earth's crust. They are composed of various chemical elements and occur in a wide range of shapes, sizes, and colors. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals and are classified based on their formation process. Some common types of rocks include igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with a specific chemical composition and atomic structure. They have various physical properties like color, hardness, and luster. Both rocks and minerals play a crucial role in geology, industry, and everyday life.

    What is the hardest known mineral on the Mohs scale?
A) Feldspar
B) Quartz
C) Diamond
D) Talc
  • 2. Which mineral is often referred to as fool's gold?
A) Gold
B) Silver
C) Copper
D) Pyrite
  • 3. What type of rock is formed from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava?
A) Granite
B) Metamorphic
C) Sedimentary
D) Igneous
  • 4. Which mineral is a major component of limestone?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Calcite
D) Gypsum
  • 5. What process involves the gradual breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces?
A) Erosion
B) Weathering
C) Subduction
D) Deposition
  • 6. Which type of rock is formed from the deposition and solidification of sediment?
A) Sedimentary
B) Igneous
C) Metamorphic
D) Limestone
  • 7. What type of rock is often created by the alteration of existing rock through heat and pressure?
A) Metamorphic
B) Igneous
C) Basalt
D) Sedimentary
  • 8. What is the process by which minerals crystallize and solidify from a molten state?
A) Melting
B) Erosion
C) Crystallization
D) Sedimentation
  • 9. What is the term for a naturally occurring solid chemical substance with a well-defined crystal structure?
A) Rock
B) Deposition
C) Mineral
D) Granite
  • 10. Which mineral is commonly found in granite and is responsible for its pink color?
A) Sulfur
B) Calcite
C) Feldspar
D) Quartz
  • 11. What term describes a collection of minerals bound together?
A) Metallic ore
B) Rock
C) Pebble
D) Gemstone
  • 12. Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide and is commonly used in jewelry?
A) Hematite
B) Calcite
C) Quartz
D) Mica
  • 13. What is the process by which sediments are pressed and cemented together to form solid rock?
A) Lithification
B) Subduction
C) Melting
D) Crystallization
  • 14. Which of the following minerals is known for its fibrous form and is commonly used in insulation?
A) Quartz
B) Calcite
C) Gypsum
D) Asbestos
  • 15. What mineral is commonly used in the production of drywall and plaster?
A) Gypsum
B) Calcite
C) Quartz
D) Feldspar
  • 16. Which mineral is known for its distinctive green color and is commonly used in jewelry and as a gemstone?
A) Sapphire
B) Ruby
C) Emerald
D) Topaz
  • 17. Which mineral is commonly used in kitchen countertops due to its hardness and durability?
A) Marble
B) Sandstone
C) Granite
D) Slate
  • 18. Which mineral is used in electrical wiring and components due to its excellent conductivity?
A) Copper
B) Silver
C) Gold
D) Iron
  • 19. Which mineral is commonly used as a lubricant and in pencil lead due to its softness?
A) Diamond
B) Quartz
C) Graphite
D) Gypsum
  • 20. Which mineral is known for its distinctive green color and variety called emerald?
A) Malachite
B) Amethyst
C) Jade
D) Beryl
  • 21. What property describes a mineral's resistance to scratching?
A) Cleavage
B) Streak
C) Hardness
D) Luster
  • 22. What is the term for the process through which rocks and minerals are transported from one place to another?
A) Deposition
B) Weathering
C) Compaction
D) Erosion
  • 23. What is the common name for the mineral Halite?
A) Sulfur
B) Gypsum
C) Calcite
D) Salt
  • 24. What is the scale that measures the hardness of minerals from 1 to 10?
A) Mohs scale
B) Richter scale
C) Beaufort scale
D) Kelvin scale
  • 25. What is the process of changing one type of rock into another?
A) Metamorphism
B) Erosion
C) Sedimentation
D) Weathering
  • 26. What is the color of malachite?
A) Green
B) Blue
C) Red
D) Yellow
  • 27. Which of these is a volcanic rock made of glass and minerals?
A) Obsidian
B) Granite
C) Basalt
D) Pumice
  • 28. What mineral gives the gemstone sapphire its blue color?
A) Corundum
B) Opal
C) Emerald
D) Amethyst
  • 29. What mineral is also known as rock salt?
A) Gypsum
B) Halite
C) Calcite
D) Pyrite
  • 30. What is the common name for hydrated copper carbonate mineral?
A) Azurite
B) Chrysocolla
C) Apatite
D) Malachite
  • 31. What is the term for particles carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice?
A) Mineral
B) Magma
C) Sediment
D) Igneous Rock
  • 32. What mineral group makes up the major component of the Earth's mantle?
A) Silicates
B) Oxides
C) Sulfides
D) Carbonates
  • 33. Which rock has a fine-grained texture and is commonly used in sculptures and buildings?
A) Marble
B) Granite
C) Schist
D) Basalt
  • 34. What is the dense, fine-grained, mafic rock that often contains olivine and pyroxene minerals?
A) Obsidian
B) Granite
C) Basalt
D) Gabbro
  • 35. Which mineral's crystals align themselves to form layers in foliated metamorphic rocks?
A) Quartz
B) Feldspar
C) Calcite
D) Mica
  • 36. What is the term for the layering often found in sedimentary rocks that arises from differences in grain size?
A) Fracture
B) Streak
C) Bedding
D) Cleavage
  • 37. What is the color of the mineral sulfur?
A) Black
B) White
C) Yellow
D) Red
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